The One Step Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1/2 (HIV1 / 2) Antibody Test is a rapid and convenient immunochromatographic assay used for the qualitative detection of antibodies to HIV type 1 and type 2 in human serum or whole blood sample. It is intended for professional use as an aid in the diagnosis of HIV infections. This assay provides only a preliminary result and all positive samples must be confirmed with other qualified assays.
Summary and explanation
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV attacks the immune system, resulting in a chronic, progressive disease that leads to life-threatening opportunistic infections. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 has been isolated from patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complexes, and from healthy people at high potential risk of developing AIDS. HIV-2 patients are found mainly in parts of West Africa. Both types are transmitted by sexual contact, through blood or from mother to child and appear to cause clinically indistinguishable AIDS.
HIV infections are classified based on CD4 cell count and clinical symptoms. Not all people go through all the "stages" and the timelines can also vary greatly from one person to another. Antiretroviral treatment increases the life expectancy of people infected with HIV. HIV-1 and HIV-2 are similar in their morphology, cell tropism, host interaction, and generic structure. Serological studies have determined that HIV-1 and HIV-2 have multiple common epitopes on core antigens, but much less common on envelope antigens. HIV-related clinical diagnostic problems are the detection of antibodies to HIV1 / 2 in human plasma or serum by immunoassay.