The papers below describe some of the developments in Time- and frequency-domain fluorescence technology developed by the founders of Photonic Research Systems:
'Fluorescence Decay Time Imaging using an Imaging Photon Detector with a Radiofrequency Photon Correlation System' C.G. Morgan, A.C. Mitchell and J.G. Murray, Proc. SPIE 1204(2) 798-807, 1990.
'Nanosecond Time-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy: Principles and Practice' C.G. Morgan, A.C. Mitchell and J.G. Murray, Proc. Roy. Microscop. Soc. 1, 463-466, 1990.
'A Phase-Quadrature Correlator for the Measurement of Fluorescence Decay Times by Single Photon Counting' C.G. Morgan and J.G. Murray, Chem. Phys. Letts. 179(3), 211-217, 1991.
‘Frequency Domain Imaging using Array Detectors:-Present Status and Prospects for Picosecond Resolution’, Proc. SPIE 1525, 83-90, 1991.
'In-situ Fluorescence Analysis using Nanosecond Decay Time Imaging' (invited paper) C.G. Morgan, A.C. Mitchell and J.G. Murray, Trends in Anal. Chem. 11(1) 32-41, 1992.
'Prospects for Confocal Imaging based on Nanosecond Fluorescence Decay Time' C.G. Morgan, A.C. Mitchell and J.G. Murray, J. Microscopy 165(1) 49-60, 1992.
'Capabilities of Photon Counting Systems applied to Biomedicine' J.R. Howorth and C.G. Morgan, Proc.SPIE 1895 101-112, 1993.
'A High Frequency Modulated Light Source for Phase Fluorometry and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging' C.G. Morgan, A.C. Mitchell, N. Peacock and J.G. Murray, Rev. Sci. Instrumen. 66(1) pt 1, 48-51, 1995.
'A Photon Correlation System for Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements' C.G. Morgan, A.C. Mitchell and J.G. Murray, Rev. Sci. Instrumen. 66(7), 3744-49 1995.
'A compact frequency-domain fluorometer with a directly-modulated deuterium light source', C.G. Morgan, Y. Hua, A.C. Mitchell, J.G. Murray and A.D. Boardman, Rev. Sci. Instrumen. 67(1), 41-47, 1996.
'Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging: An emerging technique in Fluorescence Microscopy', C.G. Morgan, Chromosome Research, 4(4), 261-263, 1996.
'Enhancement of Sensitivity and Selectivity of Luminescence Detection for High Density Immunoassay and Screening', C.G. Morgan, Proc. Society for Biomolecular Screening, Basel,October 14-17th, 157-166, 1996.
'New Approaches to Lifetime-Resolved Luminescence Imaging', C.G. Morgan, A.C. Mitchell, J.G. Murray and E.J. Wall, J. Fluorescence, 7(1), 65-73, 1997.
'Fluorescence as an Enabling Technology for High Throughput Screening', C.G. Morgan in 'New Challenges Arising From High Throughput Screening' , Dixon, G.K., Major, J.S. and Rice, M.J. eds. Bios, 1998.
‘Direct modulation of the effective sensitivity of a CCD detector: a new approach to time-resolved fluorescence imaging’, A. C. Mitchell, J. E. Wall, J. G. Murray & C. G. Morgan, Journal of Microscopy Volume 206 Issue 3 Page 225-232 - June 2002
‘Measurement of nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence with a directly gated interline CCD camera’, A. C. Mitchell, J. E. Wall, J. G. Murray, C. G. Morgan, Journal of Microscopy Volume 206 Issue 3 Page 233-238 - June 2002
PRS patents issued and pending Issued
'Measurement of Luminescence' US 5,459,323, October 1995 (priority Date Jan. 12 1990)
'Measurement of Luminescence' EP 0 519 930B1 (1998)
These granted patents describe the principles of FLIM in the frequency domain. The inventor is one of the founders of Photonic Research Systems, and the patents are licensed exclusively to the company with rights to re-license.
‘Luminescence Assay Using Cyclical Excitation Wavelength Sequence’ PCT/GB99/01512
Luminescence Assays PCT/GB98/00769